How do I get to…?

The other day (or week) my counterpart taught a lesson on making reservations, be it for the movies, dinner or travel. As a follow-up, I pulled out some Australian bus schedules and travel brochures to practice asking for travel information.

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I set up bus and train stations around the room and assigned pairs of students to each. I gave them a schedule for a particular line or set of lines and told them to help the travelers that would be stopping by their stations to ask for information.

The rest of the students also worked together in pairs, and I gave each a starting point, a destination and a time by which they needed to be there. The times I gave them didn’t usually match perfectly with the schedule, so I told them, when in doubt, arrive early. For example, though a bus might get in at 11:01 am, if their assigned arrival time is 11:00 am, they have to take the earlier bus, even if it gets in at 10:30 am. Quite a foreign concept for my students.

Assuming some students would be done earlier than others, I set up a reading table with brochures and pamphlets about Western Australia. I told everyone who got done early to browse the material and write down a sentence or two about whatever looked interesting to them.

The process and the materials both being quite new, it took a little while for everyone to get the hang of the activity, but once they did, they actively participated and all made it to their destinations.

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20 Questions

This classic game is a great way to practice questions. Is it … ? Does it … ? Can it … ? Can you … it? It requires the full width and breadth of the students’ vocabularies, and it also requires a certain way of thinking, which doesn’t come naturally to everyone.

img_3810I recently played with my students, none of whom had ever played before. I explained the rules and gave them a few example lines of questioning. Then, when I let them start asking questions themselves, they immediately starting guessing: Is it a computer? Is it a pineapple? I called a time out and explained the premise again: start big and get more specific from there. Before you ask if it’s a pineapple, ask if it’s a fruit, or better yet, ask if it’s food. We played a few rounds together. Some students grasped it very quickly, others less quickly, but it was great practice for everyone. After the class got the hang of it, I divided them into small groups and let them play again. I also made them keep track of their lines of questioning, so they could visualize them, and so we could discuss them later.

There are different variations of this game out there, but I kept it basic. One player thinks of a word; the other players have to guess what it is by asking up to 20 yes/no questions. In each of my classes, I provided the students with the question structures that I wanted them to use. That’s it!

TESOL | Sentence Auction

The sentence auction is one of my all-time favorite activities for intermediate to advanced students. However, slimmed down to basic examples, this activity can also be used with beginners.*

It serves several purposes: firstly, it trains students’ language instincts, helping them recognize and/or correct mistakes, but it also lets them practice managing money and risk. The auction definitely requires a bit of preparation, but the students can help.

Preparation

First, you need sentences: some right, some wrong. I recommend two ways of getting them. Personally, I like to have the students write the sentences used for this activity, usually during the session before game day. From experience, I know there will be some recurring errors in the mix. Otherwise, the teacher can come up with each sentence for more targeted, intentional practice.

Student-created sentences: If I asked my students to, “Write me five sentences,” I would get blank stares. Give your students a prompt, somewhere to begin.

Grammar: Get your students to write sentences using a particular tense: present, past, future, etc., but rather than asking them to use the tense, give them a time frame—every day, last month, next year, etc. Then, remind them which tense they’ll want to use in that time frame.  Ask them to include a question or write all questions if that’s the topic du jour.

Vocabulary: Give your students a vocab prompt. Use the words you’re currently working on. Of course, you can also use the opportunity to review. For example, ask for five nouns, five adjectives and five verbs. Tell them to write sentences using at least one of the words per sentence or at least one of each part of speech per sentence, etc.

Once you have your sentences, take some time to actually read them; survey the errors and decide how many and which sentences you want to use.

Teacher-created sentences: Decide how many sentences you want to auction off and what typical errors you want to tempt the students with. This means a little more work for you, the teacher, but this way you have more control over what the students are practicing.

Game day

Divide the class into teams. It’s up to you to find the right balance for your class. If the teams are too big, individual students might not have a chance to participate, but if there are too many teams, the activity can become difficult to manage. I find it helpful to recruit one student as a score keeper and helper. Though not necessarily concentrating on the sentences, this student will still be very much involved. He or she must keep track of which team bought which sentence for how much money—in English. This could potentially be a student whose math skills outshine his or her language skills or a student who might otherwise be disruptive.

Ask the students if they are familiar with an auction. They might not know the English word, but a brief demonstration will hopefully help them connect the dots. If you think your students are completely unfamiliar with the concept, it might be a good idea to explain it during the session before game day, perhaps with a video.

Tell the students you’ll be auctioning off (their) sentences. Some will be correct; others will have errors. Clue them in on how many of each type of sentence are for sale.

Give each team a budget. Make it enough money so the teams won’t run out too quickly, but don’t give them too much; make the students practice taking calculated risks.

Set the rules on how often you’ll repeat each sentence. This will encourage students to be quiet while you read the sentences and help spare your vocal chords. If students are writing the sentences down, you may also want to set a time limit on how long before you close bidding.

Checking answers: It’s possible to check each sentence after it’s sold, distributing points right away, but this interrupts the flow of the activity and takes away from the suspense. I find it more enjoyable to go through all of the sentences at the end.

If you have the resources, you may want to give your students a worksheet with the sentences you auctioned off and have them follow along as the appropriate corrections are made. Otherwise, if you have time, have the students write down each sentence as you go through the corrections.

Scoring: There are different ways you can keep track of the score.

PointsMost simply, give points for correct sentences and take points away for incorrect sentences. Add some nuance and a challenge to the game by giving extra points for successfully corrected errors. That way, students will bid for more sentences and give each a second thought.

MoneyAlternatively, use money to keep score. Tell students the balance of their budget will disappear after bidding has ended, but they will get some or all of their spent money back for correct and/or corrected sentences. This will encourage students to make higher bids and take risks.

I’ve used this activity a number of times, with varying degrees of success, but each time, the students have gotten very animated. If you want to try it out, I encourage you put a lot of thought into your preparation. Once you’ve tried it, you’ll know what works and what doesn’t. Then you can tweak it to perfection. Going once; going twice; three times! And sold to you!

*For beginners: Consider auctioning off single words or phrases. You probably won’t want to confuse your students by giving them incorrect forms. Instead, auction off base forms and ask for variations: irregular plural nounsirregular verbscomparative and superlative forms of adjectives, etc.

TESOL | Another 5 things

Just a little update on the activity 5 things. The first few weeks of school I’ve used it to elicit vocabulary for subsequent teaching topics. When students were required to talk about their lives and introduce their friends and family, I had them come up with five words for family members.

In another class, the students were supposed to make suggestions, so I had them come up with five activities they’d like to do with their friends. They still acted like they didn’t have any ideas for their suggestions, but their excuses were weakened by the fact that I made each of them come up with five, not to mention the list I had collected on the board. Not knowing what to write is something my students often claim, but more often than not, I’ve given them the tools they need.

TESOL | 🎲 Roll and Tell

Since the new school year began this week, I thought I’d post an ice breaker for new groups, large and small.

First, students write down 6 facts about themselves. If they know enough English already, they can choose what they’d like to share. Alternatively, the teacher can give them questions to answer or sentences to complete. With my high school students, I like to include a sentence that I always hope proves enlightening: I think English is [easy / hard].

Dice are a great classroom tool!

The reason for 6 is that students will roll a die to determine how many facts they must share with the class. The teacher can demonstrate the process, once students have finished writing.

The chance factor adds a little excitement to the activity, and if students roll a 6, it’s not the teacher’s fault! This may put some shy students at ease. On the other hand, if an especially confident student wants to share all of their facts, a low number shouldn’t stop them.

See what your students come up with when they roll and tell.

TESOL | Numbers

I find that numbers are always something worth reviewing and practicing, and they can be practiced alongside many other topics. This post will include several very different activities.

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Javanese numerals

Meaningful Numbers

This activity can be used as an icebreaker, but it also works with groups that are already well acquainted. Students choose three numbers that are significant to them (e.g. age, height, birthdate, number of siblings, number of pets, etc.). In small groups, they take turns trying to guess the meaning behind each number by asking, “Is it your height? Is it how many siblings you have?” etc. Once the groups are finished guessing, the teacher can ask for volunteers to challenge the whole class with their meaningful numbers.

My students get very creative, both with their questions and their answers. They also get a little sassy, making guesses that are obviously wrong, but usually very funny. This activity is about a lot more than numbers, because the students are thinking about all kinds of vocabulary the whole time.

Counting Together

This exercise does practice numbers, but it’s probably more useful as a gauge of the group dynamic. Students try to count to a certain number (or as high as they can), which may sound easy enough, but believe me, it’s not.

Everyone stands in a circle and either closes their eyes or looks at the floor. One person begins the counting with ‘one’. The tricky part is that any student can continue, but no two students may say the same number at the same time. Numbers can be called out in quick succession or with long pauses in between, but only one student may say a given number. The first time I did this activity was with 42 students (and 2 teachers), and we got as high as 16.

Perhaps not the best activity if you want to practice higher numbers, but you can alternatively have the students count in intervals, i.e. by fives, tens, etc.

Classroom Inventory

If the topic du jour is classroom vocabulary or school supplies, why not throw in some numbers as well? Have students take an inventory of objects in the classroom. They can work together in small groups or individually. Have them compare their results at the end, the perfect time to practice ‘there is / are‘. If it’s feasible, the teacher can assign different groups to different parts of the school, e.g. the library, front office or cafeteria. If you’re short on time, limit the number of objects to be inventoried; perhaps let each group choose a certain number of items from a list. If you have time to kill, let the students go wild.

Mathematics

Lastly, make your students do math! Whether young, old or somewhere in between, everyone can benefit from a little extra math practice, be it basic arithmetic or everyday problems using basic measurements, prices or time. For large numbers, look at populations, area measurements or numbers of language speakers. Compare different countries to one another to practice geography while you’re at it.

As always, have fun and let me know how it goes!

TESOL | Five Things

This is one of my favorite warm-up activities. It’s quick, easy, versatile and usually elicits a wide variety of results. It’s good for reviewing old vocabulary as well as setting the stage for new material. Asking for ‘five things’ can also help determine what the students already know about a given topic.

The Concept:

The teacher writes a category on the board. The students must write down five words that fit the category. For example:

Five things that are GREEN

– grass
– leaf
– bamboo
– apple
– pear

Adjectives are a great conceptual link (cold / round / sweet), but verbs are just as good.

Five things that can FLY

– bird
– airplane
– helicopter
– bee
– dragonfly

If you’re about to review one of the ‘perfects’, warm up with five irregular past participles* (eaten / gone / made / seen / written). Ideally, you’ll get a lot of responses, which you can use in your lesson.

Categories can be virtually anything: plants, animals, places, even words that start with the same letter, if you’re focusing on spelling or pronunciation. They can also be individual: five things you cannot do / may not do.

When it comes to some words, I set limits. Yes, notebooks can be green, but are they typically green? Is coffee always sweet? (Actually, in East Java, it usually is; I might let that one slide, at least while I’m here.)

There is so much to choose from and play with. Try to keep track of the categories you give your students, especially if you use this activity on a regular basis. That way, your examples will stay fresh.

Give it a try!

*In Germany, my students called past participles the ‘third form’ and in Indonesia, they say ‘verb 3’. EFL dictionaries often include a table of irregular verbs, the third column of which lists past participles, e.g. go / went / gone.

TESOL | I’m a marker looking for some ink

Some activities are so versatile that they demand to be adjusted and tweaked again and again. This is one of those. I’m going to describe the simplest version first, before I add a few possible adaptations.

Regardless of the variation, the teacher needs to prepare one slip of paper for each student. For a simple vocab activity, the teacher writes two words on each slip:

a teacher > a marker

a marker > ink

ink > a bottle

a bottle > a shelf

The words can be related or unrelated. The first word indicates what the student is during the activity and the second indicates what they are looking for. The slips of paper can also include the phrases the student will need:

I’m a teacher. Are you a marker?

Otherwise those phrases can be written on the board and explained to the class as a whole. You can practice any number of phrases, but you’ll want to be consistent.

am a marker. Are you ink? Who is ink?

I have a marker. Do you have ink? Who has ink?

Once a student has found what they were looking for, they should ask what the next student is looking for and follow suit, keeping track of the chain in a list.

teacher, marker, ink, bottle, shelf

The first person to complete the list is the winner.

Instead of finding single vocab words, the task could be to complete a story.

to the store. > They didn’t

They didn’t > have what

have what > she was

The first person to find the complete the story (and correctly identify the beginning and the end!) is the winner.

A story could be replaced with instructions or any other sort of written text.

Large classes could be split up to save time or make the activity more manageable. Students could complete the task in pairs, taking turns to ask for and give information. Another option would be to split the class into two larger groups, each with a separate puzzle. For example, students in one group could gather the ingredients of a recipe, while the others compile the instructions.

Preparing:

Simplify preparation for this activity by compiling a list with enough words, or finding a text that can be broken into enough pieces, before you make the cards. Remember that the first word or phrase will also be the last.

Keep in mind:

This activity gives everyone something to do. It requires individual as well as group work. However, I was forced to remind my students several times that their task was not to copy their friends’ work, but rather to complete the task (the list, story, etc.) on their own, the only help from their friends being the next clue.

Give it a try, and let me know how it works for you!

TESOL | What has been done?

Time to practice passive present perfect (or passive simple past if you’re feeling AE).

Divide the class into two groups. While one group waits outside, the other group looks around the room, trying to remember as many details as possible. After a minute or two, the groups switch places. The students who had been waiting outside enter the classroom and proceed to change 10 things. (To ensure that only 10 things are changed and to help keep track of what was changed, assign smaller groups of students to each change a specific number of things about the room.)

After the changes have been made, the waiting group comes back in and tries to figure out what has been done to the room, e.g. the board has been cleaned; a chair has been moved; a window has been opened/closed, etc.

I’ve had students write their guesses on the board before discussing each one.

TESOL | 5 by 5

This activity is meant to practice vocabulary and spelling. I prefer a simple version of the game, but it can easily be made more difficult.

I have noticed that students at every level have trouble remembering the names of letters in English despite the fact that (or because?) they learn the alphabet so early. As a little refresher, I find it helpful to practice the alphabet immediately prior to this activity, e.g. by saying it together as a class or having each student say one letter.

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To set up the game, the teacher draws a 5 x 5 grid on the board or on a piece of paper. (If the teacher uses the the board, the students can follow along more easily.) Each student then draws their own grid on a piece of paper.

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To begin the game, the teacher says one letter of the alphabet and writes it in one square (any square). Students write the same letter in any one square of their grids. Then, students take turns each saying one letter, which each student adds to their grid. The goal is to write words of two to five letters. To keep things simple, I prefer to count only words going left to right or top to bottom. Generally, I allow letters to be repeated any number of times, but limits can be set by the teacher to add a challenge.

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Each word is worth a certain amount of points. 5-letter words are worth 10 points. Words with 4, 3 or 2 letters are worth the number of letters in that word. Points are tallied at the end to determine the winner. Don’t forget to explain the point system before beginning the game.

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The activity can be done as a class or in smaller groups. It is up to the teacher to decide what kinds of words should count. I prefer not to include acronyms like CEO, but having such words count can be useful. Limits or bonuses can also be set for parts of speech or other word categories, e.g. only verbs will be counted or color words count double.